Welcome to the American Journal of Play special issue on topics in the cognitive psychology of play, another in our series of theme issues that will appear from time to time. Each special issue begins with an interview with distinguished figures in the field of play—this one features Dorothy G. Singer and Jerome L. Singer, pioneers in the study of pretend play. In each such issue, the Journal also invites one or more prominent guest editors on the topic and includes work by leading researchers and thinkers. For this special issue, Roberta Michnick Golinkoff, Kathy Hirsh-Pasek, Sandra W. Russ, and Angeline S. Lillard asked other scholars to join a discourse prompted by Lillard and colleagues in a recent Psychological Bulletin article probing the current play-studies literature for weaknesses and biases. The authors featured here acknowledge vulnerabilities in present assumptions in the research about play while also finding flaws in several critiques of this research. The articles in this issue shift the terms of the debate and point to new avenues for the investigation of play.